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آخرین عکس (اوقات فراغت کودکان، نوجوانان و جوانان شماره‌ی 41)
داستان پدرم (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 40)
اِی‌اِن‌جی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 39)
آسمان آریانه (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 38)
نقشی از جان (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 37)
دوست صمیمی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 36)
سلام شتر! - ارزش دوستی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 35)
سمفونی میمون (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 34)
سپیده‌دم (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 33)
تغییر تخم‌مرغ (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 32)
َوَردست (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 31)
کودکان در باغ‌وحش (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 30)
اهرام مصر (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 29)
روح (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 27)
ارواح شعبده‌باز (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 26)
اونو بگیرید! (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 25)
مادر (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 24)
روش صحیح (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 23)
داستانی کوتاه‌ از یک روباه و یک موش (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 22)
ناممکن برای کبوتر (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 21)
بازی گِری یا پیرمرد بازنشسته‌ی شطرنج‌باز (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 20)
هدف (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 19)
آه پسر - زندگی پسر فقیر مالزیایی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 18)
سردار شهید حاج احمد کاظمی - قسمت دوم (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 17)
سردار شهید حاج احمد کاظمی - قسمت اول (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 16)
شهدای انقلاب اسلامی و دفاع مقدس علی، مهدی و حمید باکری (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 15)
بره‌ای شجاع در جزیره - قسمت اول (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 14)
پروازی بلند (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 13)
اریگامی یا کاغذ و تا (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 12)
دنیا در یک دقیقه! (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 11)
تهدید آرام (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 10)
«ماریزا» الاغ لجوج (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 9)
آخرین گره (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 8)
فقدان روشنایی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 7)
دکتر سعید کاظمی آشتیانی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 6)
اروپا و ایتالیا (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 5)
ساعت زنگ‌دار (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 4)
لامپ! (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 3)
چگونه ارتباط نزدیک‌مان را با نوجوانان‌مان حفظ کنیم؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 43)
زمانی که بچه‌ها بدرفتاری می‌کنند (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 42)
تکلیف منزل - امروزه در برابر گذشته (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 41)
یافتن مدرسه‌ی مناسب برای تأمین نیازهای فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 40)
نصایحی برای فرزندان و والدین در مورد آزمون‌ها (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 39)
تجربه در برابر موفقیت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 38)
چگونه ارتباط‌های بین‌فردی به موفقیت می‌انجامد؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 37)
آیا از نوجوانان‌مان سؤال بپرسیم که ... (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 36)
اهمیت عذرخواهی از نوجوانان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 35)
آموزش عذرخواهی به نوجوانان با ذکر مثال (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 34)
خودتنظیمی به‌عنوان پیش‌بینی‌کننده‌ی موفقیت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 33)
چگونه والدینی خودآگاه باشیم؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 32)
ارتباط برقرار کردن با نوجوانان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 31)
آموزش خودکنترلی به بچه‌ها (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 30)
اعتماد به فرزندان 8 الی 12 ساله‌ی‌مان برای تصمیم‌گیری صحیح (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌
نکته‌هایی برای ارتقای نوجوانان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 28)
فواید درگیر بودن بچه‌ها با فعالیت‌های مثبت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 27)
تصمیم‌گیری نوجوان در برابر تصمیم‌گیری بزرگسال (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 26)
تصمیم‌گیری مناسب برای نوجوانان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 25)
نوجوانان و تصمیم‌‌گیری مناسب (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 24)
آموزش مسؤولیت‌پذیری به فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 23)
آموزش مستقل بودن به فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 22)
چگونگی ایفای نقش برای تصمیم‌گیری‌های بهتر (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 21)
رقابت سالم (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 20)
سخنی درباره‌ی رقابت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 19)
کمک به فرزندان 9 الی 12 ساله در جهت رشد مهارت‌های تفکر انتقادی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شم
چگونه یک مربی بزرگ باشیم؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 17)
آموزش بخشندگی به فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 16)
توسعه‌ی مهارت‌های تصمیم‌گیری (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 15)
آداب رفتاری خوب برای فرزندان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 14)
رعایت آداب رفتاری احترام محسوب می‌شود (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 13)
نکته‌هایی برای آموزش آداب رفتاری (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 12)
آموزش همدلی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 11)
اعمال ارزش‌های خانوادگی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 10)
ایجاد ارزش‌های خانوادگی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 9)
اِعمال تدریجی ارزش‌های خوب در فرزندان‌تان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 7)
شش عادت افراد همدل (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 6)
پنج پیام پدر و مادر مثبت بودن (اوقات فراغت خانواده شماره‌ی 5)
مدیریت دانش و عملکرد فرایند - دلالت‌های عملی - قسمت دوم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 54)
مدیریت دانش و عملکرد فرایند - دلالت‌های عملی - قسمت اول (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 53)
چطور در کارهایی که به آن‌ها اهمیت می‌دهیم بهتر شویم؟ (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 51)
چگونه درس‌های آموخته شده را در پایان یک پروژه جذب کنیم؟ (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 50)
چارلی چاپلین در عصر جدید (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 49)
مربی‌گری چیست؟ (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 48)
مدیریت دانش سازمانی - شناساندن و حذف نرم‌افزاری کارمندان (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 47)
نمودار مثلثی دانش فرایند و نرم‌افزارهای مدیریت دانش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 46)
طوفان ذهنی؛ روشی صحیح، منصفانه، پسندیده و اخلاقی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 45)
مقدمه‌ای بر یادگیری مؤثر درس‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 44)
سازمان‌های یادگیرنده - اهمیت مدیریت دانش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 43)
مدیریت دانش برای تمام نسل‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 42)
مقدمه‌ای بر استقرار سیستم مدیریت دانش در سازمان‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 41)
سیستم مدیریت دانش - ایجاد تجربه‌ای بهتر برای مشتریان (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 40)
نمونه‌ای از کارکرد نرم‌افزارهای مدیریت دانش - افزایش کارایی در سازمان‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی
مدیریت دانش - افراد، فرایندها و فناوری‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 38)
ملاقات «باری» و «سامی» (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 37)
سیستم فکر کردن - پنگوئن‌ها و شیرماهی‌ها در یک کوه یخی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 36)
آن‌چه می‌دانیم کشف کنیم! (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 35)
سهم‌گذاری توانمندی، سرمایه و ثروتی به‌نام دانش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 34)
گاری - چهار نوع اعضای یک تیم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 33)
برف و بهمن - مدیریت دانش و خطر (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 32)
بحث گروهی صحیح مطابق با مدل دینامیک گروهی «بروس تاکمن» (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 31)
گم کردن هدف - تعیین اهداف شخصی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 30)
آیا می‌خواهیم بیش‌تر نواور باشیم؟! - خلاقیت در ایجاد صدای رعد و برق (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 29)
فرمانروایان مقدس - فرمانروایی حضرت داوود(علیه‌السلام) - خلاقیت در فتح اورشلیم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شم
فرانکی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 28)
چگونگی تأثیر تعهد شغلی بر کسب و کار (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 27)
یک گردش خوب - نورمن ویزدم - خلاقیت، احساس مسؤولیت و سماجت در پیگیری وظایف (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌
قهوه و استراتژی - مجموعه‌ای از راهکارها برای دستیابی ‌به مزیت رقابتی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 25)
اعتقاد به خشنودی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 24)
بازسازی روحیه‌ی تعهد در کارمندان (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 23)
مستر بین و خلاقیت در شناسایی سارق (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 22)
درس‌های مدیریتی از مسابقه‌ی لاک‌پشت و خرگوش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 21)
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازی حضرت یوسف(علیه‌السلام) ارشاد معنوی در سایه‌ی تدابیر مادی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازی حضرت یوسف(علیه‌السلام) - تعامل صادقانه با مردم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 1
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازی حضرت سلیمان(علیه‌السلام) - صلابت در رهبری (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 18)
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازیحضرت سلیمان(ع) - ایفای نقش آرام‌بخشی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 17)
شش عادت افراد همدل (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 16)
فرهنگ‌سازی در مترو - پلکان یا پله‌ی برقی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 15)
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درست‌کاری چیست؟! (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 11)
از طریق نمودار سازمانی‌تان تأثیرگذاری بیش‌تری داشته باشید! (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 10)
یک طاووس در سرزمین پنگوئن‌ها - نواوری و شهامت (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 12)
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Decision-Making and Camps (Program Design and Activities No. 15)
کوچک کردن
Decision-Making and Camps (Program Design and Activities No. 15)
Program Designs and Activities
 Youth programs like camps can help empower youth to take ownership and responsibility for developing and sustaining programs.

Decision- Making and Camps


Reference
Originally published in the American Camp Association.


 
Author
Karla A. Henderson, Ph.D.
North Carolina State University
.


 
Translated Paper
You can find the translated Persian paper in this address:
http://www.tasnimnoor.com/Default.aspx?tabid=418&EntryID=1750


 
Introduction
Camp experiences enrich children’s lives. Camp is a significant context for youth development. Many people who have gone to camp or served as camp counselors know these statements are true. Yet, because many people agree, only recently have efforts documented the outcomes and benefits of camp. Further, change is often difficult to study and the intangible benefits of camp experiences are complex to analyze. Nevertheless, research is showing that camp embodies many aspects of positive youth development.

Youth development focuses on supporting or promoting positive developmental processes such as competence, mastery, positive identity, resilience, caring, connection, and belonging that are known or assumed to advance health and well-being (Benson & Saito, 2006). Camps are considered youth development programs when they intentionally incorporate experiences, opportunities, and supports to address and advance the positive development of children and youth.

One important outcome of camp is for children and adolescents to become better decision-makers. Decision-making is defined as taking personal responsibility for one’s life and taking control of one’s behavior. Decision-making involves thinking for oneself and taking action consistent with that thought (Catalano et al., 2002). Decision-making also is linked to goal-setting and problem-solving. Making good decisions and carrying them out is a life skill essential for development into adulthood.


Research Says
Young people need choice and voice (Witt & Caldwell, 2005).
Youth development researchers such as Gambone and her colleagues (2002) demonstrated that youth need to have opportunities to make age-appropriate decisions for themselves and others. They need to be able to decide what activities to participate in, choose responsible alternatives, and take part in implementing the choices.

As children get older, poor decisions have greater consequences than when they are younger. For example, in adolescence, poor decisions (e.g., school, sex) have more negative consequences than in childhood (Lerner, 1995) and the adolescent is more responsible for those decisions and their consequences than in childhood.

The ability for a youth to take an active role in decisions and circumstances that impact their lives is sometimes called autonomy or self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Preserving choice and initiative is critical.

Adolescents can be characterized as poor decision makers. Yet, little research exists that examines how people learn to make decisions. Decision-making does not follow a single trajectory. It includes both an experiential and analytic cognitive system. Even as children develop the competencies to reason effectively and make normative decisions, they also develop shortcut and biased judgment strategies that can be used inappropriately in some situations.

The process of responsible decision-making generally involves an assessment of goals or purposes, an analysis of the alternatives, a consideration of the information about and consequences for each alternative (including how decisions may affect the self as well as others), a decision about a course of action, and the opportunity to carry out and take responsibility for the decision.

Decision-making may be understood in terms of a cost-verses-benefit approach, where behavior is chosen that maximizes gains and minimizes losses (Gordon, 1996). It involves cognitive development but also cultural and societal factors.

Research about age differences in affective decision-making showed that willingness to engage in a risky behavior because it appears advantageous (and not negative) is highest in preadolescents and adolescents with adults more avoidant because of the negative possibilities (Cauffman et al., 2010).

Similarly, Albert and Steinberg (2011) concluded, based on a review of studies conducted in the past 10 years, that information processing related to making risky decisions by adolescents included analytic (i.e., cold) approaches as well as experiential (i.e., hot) approaches.

Developmental neuroscience suggests patterns in maturation influence the propensity to make risky decisions among adolescents.

Too often youth believe that adults plan for them rather than with them. Therefore, youth do not always get opportunities to practice decision-making and problem-solving. Youth programs like camps can help empower youth to take ownership and responsibility for developing and sustaining programs (Witt & Caldwell, 2005).

Hattie et al. (1997) did a meta-analysis and found that the strongest effect sizes were for self control such as independence, self-efficacy, assertiveness, internal locus of control, and decision-making. Effect sizes increased 25 months later –compelling evidence that structured voluntary activities can have a powerful sustainable effect on development.


Camp Research and Decision-Making
Research is somewhat limited regarding the influence of camps on assisting youth to become responsible decision-makers. The little research that exists has shown mixed results in terms of the role of camps.
Chenery’s (1991) qualitative study of camps across the United States found that cooperation, getting along, achievement, being allowed to make choices, being pushed to be the best one can be, independence and teamwork all related to self-esteem. Children reported how free they felt at camp.

Dworken (2001) interviewed parents and found they thought that camp provided campers with many opportunities for decision-making as a small group as well as making personal choices. "Campers are encouraged to use their initiative instead of the staff taking control of every situation," commented one parent.

Bialeschki and Scanlin (2005) described in the preliminary research done with Youth Development Strategies Inc with over 7600 campers that youth involvement, which focused on campers' perceptions around decision-making, leadership, and belonging showed only 5 percent of all campers in the optimal category and 39 percent in the insufficient group. Thus, camps do not seem to be targeting this area, or alternatively, measurement of this construct has not been adequate.

Free-choice has been shown to facilitate positive developmental outcomes for youth. Research done at a residential girls camp with a free-choice philosophy indicated that the outcomes were congruent and the free-choice program was integral to the process (Schmalz, Kerstetter, & Kleiber, 2011).


Bottom Line
Decision-making is a key developmental process needed for positive youth development. The youth development literature has not addressed this process fully. What constitutes the cognitive as well as experiential aspects of decision-making? Camp research has only limited information available about the roles that camp can play.

This area of decision-making offers great potential for youth development and numerous opportunities for further youth development and camp research.


Resources
- Albert, D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Judgment and decision making in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 211-224.
- American Camp Association. (2005). Directions: Youth development outcomes of the camp experience. Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/research
- Benson, P.L., & Saito, R.N. (2006). The scientific foundations of youth development. Minneapolis: Search Institute. Retrieved from:
http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publication/assets/74_sup/ydv_4.pdf
- Bialeschki, M.D., & Scanlin, M. (2005). The camp experience: Being all that you can be. Camping Magazine, 78(5). Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/campmag/0509camp.php
- Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, M.A.M., Lonczak, H.S., & Hawkins, J.D. (2002). Prevention & Treatment, 5. Retrieved from:
http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/pre0050015a.html
- Cauffman, E., Schulman, E. P., Steinberg, L. Claus, E., Banich, M. T., Graham, S., & Woolard, J. (2010). Age differences in affective decision making as indexed by performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 193-207.
- Chenery, M.F. (1991). I am somebody: The messages and methods of organized camping for youth development. Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association.
- Gambone, M.A., & Arbreton, A.J.A. (1997). Safe havens: The contributions of youth organizations to healthy adolescent development. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
- Gambone, M.A., Klem, A.M., & Connell, J.P. (2002). Finding out what matters for youth: Testing key links in a community action framework for youth development. Philadelphia: Youth Development Strategies, Inc. and Institute for Research and Reform in Education.
- Gordon, C.P. (1996). Adolescent decision making: A broadly based theory and its application to prevention of early pregnancy. Adolescence, 31, 561-585.
- Hattie, J., Marsh, H.W., Neill, J.T., & Richards, G.E. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.
- Lerner, R. (1995). America’s youth in crisis. Challenges and options for programs and policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
- Schmalz, D. L., Kerstetter, D. L., Kleiber, D. A. (2011). An evaluation of developmental outcomes at a free-choice oriented girls summer camp. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 3(1), 53-69.
- Witt, P.A., & Caldwell, L.L. (2005). Recreation and youth development. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.


Recommended Citation
Henderson, K.A. (2012). Decision-Making and Camps. ACA Briefing Papers Series. Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/volunteers/care/carebriefings.


 
Vocabulary
Advantageous
ارائه‌ی یک منفعت
Giving an advantage.

Autonomy
استقلال در عمل
Freedom of action.

Biased
جانبدارانه
Favoring one person or side over another.

Compel
متقاعد کردن
Powerfully evoking attention or admiration.

Congruent
متجانس
In agreement or harmony.

Initiative
ابتکار
A fresh approach.

Maturation
بلوغ
The action or process of maturing.

Normative
اصولی - هنجاری - مرتبط شدن یا نشأت گرفتن از یک استاندارد یا هنجار
Relating to or deriving from a standard or norm.

Preserve
پایدار ماندن
Maintain in its original or existing state.

Propensity
گرایش - تمایل
An inclination or tendency.

Self- Determination
خودمختاری - خودتصمیم‌گیری - فرایندی که یک فرد زندگی‌اش را کنترل می‌کند
The process by which a person controls their own life.

Short cut
میان‌بُر
An alternative route that is shorter than the one usually taken.

Trajectory
مسیر - گذرگاه
The path described by a projectile flying or an object moving under the action of given forces.

 
1397/9/1 لينک مستقيم

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Decision-Making and Camps (Program Design and Activities No. 15)
کوچک کردن
Decision-Making and Camps (Program Design and Activities No. 15)
Program Designs and Activities
 Youth programs like camps can help empower youth to take ownership and responsibility for developing and sustaining programs.

Decision- Making and Camps


Reference
Originally published in the American Camp Association.


 
Author
Karla A. Henderson, Ph.D.
North Carolina State University
.


 
Translated Paper
You can find the translated Persian paper in this address:
http://www.tasnimnoor.com/Default.aspx?tabid=418&EntryID=1750


 
Introduction
Camp experiences enrich children’s lives. Camp is a significant context for youth development. Many people who have gone to camp or served as camp counselors know these statements are true. Yet, because many people agree, only recently have efforts documented the outcomes and benefits of camp. Further, change is often difficult to study and the intangible benefits of camp experiences are complex to analyze. Nevertheless, research is showing that camp embodies many aspects of positive youth development.

Youth development focuses on supporting or promoting positive developmental processes such as competence, mastery, positive identity, resilience, caring, connection, and belonging that are known or assumed to advance health and well-being (Benson & Saito, 2006). Camps are considered youth development programs when they intentionally incorporate experiences, opportunities, and supports to address and advance the positive development of children and youth.

One important outcome of camp is for children and adolescents to become better decision-makers. Decision-making is defined as taking personal responsibility for one’s life and taking control of one’s behavior. Decision-making involves thinking for oneself and taking action consistent with that thought (Catalano et al., 2002). Decision-making also is linked to goal-setting and problem-solving. Making good decisions and carrying them out is a life skill essential for development into adulthood.


Research Says
Young people need choice and voice (Witt & Caldwell, 2005).
Youth development researchers such as Gambone and her colleagues (2002) demonstrated that youth need to have opportunities to make age-appropriate decisions for themselves and others. They need to be able to decide what activities to participate in, choose responsible alternatives, and take part in implementing the choices.

As children get older, poor decisions have greater consequences than when they are younger. For example, in adolescence, poor decisions (e.g., school, sex) have more negative consequences than in childhood (Lerner, 1995) and the adolescent is more responsible for those decisions and their consequences than in childhood.

The ability for a youth to take an active role in decisions and circumstances that impact their lives is sometimes called autonomy or self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Preserving choice and initiative is critical.

Adolescents can be characterized as poor decision makers. Yet, little research exists that examines how people learn to make decisions. Decision-making does not follow a single trajectory. It includes both an experiential and analytic cognitive system. Even as children develop the competencies to reason effectively and make normative decisions, they also develop shortcut and biased judgment strategies that can be used inappropriately in some situations.

The process of responsible decision-making generally involves an assessment of goals or purposes, an analysis of the alternatives, a consideration of the information about and consequences for each alternative (including how decisions may affect the self as well as others), a decision about a course of action, and the opportunity to carry out and take responsibility for the decision.

Decision-making may be understood in terms of a cost-verses-benefit approach, where behavior is chosen that maximizes gains and minimizes losses (Gordon, 1996). It involves cognitive development but also cultural and societal factors.

Research about age differences in affective decision-making showed that willingness to engage in a risky behavior because it appears advantageous (and not negative) is highest in preadolescents and adolescents with adults more avoidant because of the negative possibilities (Cauffman et al., 2010).

Similarly, Albert and Steinberg (2011) concluded, based on a review of studies conducted in the past 10 years, that information processing related to making risky decisions by adolescents included analytic (i.e., cold) approaches as well as experiential (i.e., hot) approaches.

Developmental neuroscience suggests patterns in maturation influence the propensity to make risky decisions among adolescents.

Too often youth believe that adults plan for them rather than with them. Therefore, youth do not always get opportunities to practice decision-making and problem-solving. Youth programs like camps can help empower youth to take ownership and responsibility for developing and sustaining programs (Witt & Caldwell, 2005).

Hattie et al. (1997) did a meta-analysis and found that the strongest effect sizes were for self control such as independence, self-efficacy, assertiveness, internal locus of control, and decision-making. Effect sizes increased 25 months later –compelling evidence that structured voluntary activities can have a powerful sustainable effect on development.


Camp Research and Decision-Making
Research is somewhat limited regarding the influence of camps on assisting youth to become responsible decision-makers. The little research that exists has shown mixed results in terms of the role of camps.
Chenery’s (1991) qualitative study of camps across the United States found that cooperation, getting along, achievement, being allowed to make choices, being pushed to be the best one can be, independence and teamwork all related to self-esteem. Children reported how free they felt at camp.

Dworken (2001) interviewed parents and found they thought that camp provided campers with many opportunities for decision-making as a small group as well as making personal choices. "Campers are encouraged to use their initiative instead of the staff taking control of every situation," commented one parent.

Bialeschki and Scanlin (2005) described in the preliminary research done with Youth Development Strategies Inc with over 7600 campers that youth involvement, which focused on campers' perceptions around decision-making, leadership, and belonging showed only 5 percent of all campers in the optimal category and 39 percent in the insufficient group. Thus, camps do not seem to be targeting this area, or alternatively, measurement of this construct has not been adequate.

Free-choice has been shown to facilitate positive developmental outcomes for youth. Research done at a residential girls camp with a free-choice philosophy indicated that the outcomes were congruent and the free-choice program was integral to the process (Schmalz, Kerstetter, & Kleiber, 2011).


Bottom Line
Decision-making is a key developmental process needed for positive youth development. The youth development literature has not addressed this process fully. What constitutes the cognitive as well as experiential aspects of decision-making? Camp research has only limited information available about the roles that camp can play.

This area of decision-making offers great potential for youth development and numerous opportunities for further youth development and camp research.


Resources
- Albert, D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Judgment and decision making in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 211-224.
- American Camp Association. (2005). Directions: Youth development outcomes of the camp experience. Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/research
- Benson, P.L., & Saito, R.N. (2006). The scientific foundations of youth development. Minneapolis: Search Institute. Retrieved from:
http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publication/assets/74_sup/ydv_4.pdf
- Bialeschki, M.D., & Scanlin, M. (2005). The camp experience: Being all that you can be. Camping Magazine, 78(5). Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/campmag/0509camp.php
- Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, M.A.M., Lonczak, H.S., & Hawkins, J.D. (2002). Prevention & Treatment, 5. Retrieved from:
http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/pre0050015a.html
- Cauffman, E., Schulman, E. P., Steinberg, L. Claus, E., Banich, M. T., Graham, S., & Woolard, J. (2010). Age differences in affective decision making as indexed by performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 193-207.
- Chenery, M.F. (1991). I am somebody: The messages and methods of organized camping for youth development. Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association.
- Gambone, M.A., & Arbreton, A.J.A. (1997). Safe havens: The contributions of youth organizations to healthy adolescent development. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
- Gambone, M.A., Klem, A.M., & Connell, J.P. (2002). Finding out what matters for youth: Testing key links in a community action framework for youth development. Philadelphia: Youth Development Strategies, Inc. and Institute for Research and Reform in Education.
- Gordon, C.P. (1996). Adolescent decision making: A broadly based theory and its application to prevention of early pregnancy. Adolescence, 31, 561-585.
- Hattie, J., Marsh, H.W., Neill, J.T., & Richards, G.E. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.
- Lerner, R. (1995). America’s youth in crisis. Challenges and options for programs and policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
- Schmalz, D. L., Kerstetter, D. L., Kleiber, D. A. (2011). An evaluation of developmental outcomes at a free-choice oriented girls summer camp. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 3(1), 53-69.
- Witt, P.A., & Caldwell, L.L. (2005). Recreation and youth development. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.


Recommended Citation
Henderson, K.A. (2012). Decision-Making and Camps. ACA Briefing Papers Series. Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/volunteers/care/carebriefings.


 
Vocabulary
Advantageous
ارائه‌ی یک منفعت
Giving an advantage.

Autonomy
استقلال در عمل
Freedom of action.

Biased
جانبدارانه
Favoring one person or side over another.

Compel
متقاعد کردن
Powerfully evoking attention or admiration.

Congruent
متجانس
In agreement or harmony.

Initiative
ابتکار
A fresh approach.

Maturation
بلوغ
The action or process of maturing.

Normative
اصولی - هنجاری - مرتبط شدن یا نشأت گرفتن از یک استاندارد یا هنجار
Relating to or deriving from a standard or norm.

Preserve
پایدار ماندن
Maintain in its original or existing state.

Propensity
گرایش - تمایل
An inclination or tendency.

Self- Determination
خودمختاری - خودتصمیم‌گیری - فرایندی که یک فرد زندگی‌اش را کنترل می‌کند
The process by which a person controls their own life.

Short cut
میان‌بُر
An alternative route that is shorter than the one usually taken.

Trajectory
مسیر - گذرگاه
The path described by a projectile flying or an object moving under the action of given forces.

 
1397/9/1 لينک مستقيم

نظر شما پس از تاييد در سايت قرار داده خواهد شد
نام :
پست الکترونيکي :
صفحه شخصي :
نظر:
تایید انصراف
Decision-Making and Camps (Program Design and Activities No. 15)
Decision-Making and Camps (Program Design and Activities No. 15)
Program Designs and Activities
 Youth programs like camps can help empower youth to take ownership and responsibility for developing and sustaining programs.

Decision- Making and Camps


Reference
Originally published in the American Camp Association.


 
Author
Karla A. Henderson, Ph.D.
North Carolina State University
.


 
Translated Paper
You can find the translated Persian paper in this address:
http://www.tasnimnoor.com/Default.aspx?tabid=418&EntryID=1750


 
Introduction
Camp experiences enrich children’s lives. Camp is a significant context for youth development. Many people who have gone to camp or served as camp counselors know these statements are true. Yet, because many people agree, only recently have efforts documented the outcomes and benefits of camp. Further, change is often difficult to study and the intangible benefits of camp experiences are complex to analyze. Nevertheless, research is showing that camp embodies many aspects of positive youth development.

Youth development focuses on supporting or promoting positive developmental processes such as competence, mastery, positive identity, resilience, caring, connection, and belonging that are known or assumed to advance health and well-being (Benson & Saito, 2006). Camps are considered youth development programs when they intentionally incorporate experiences, opportunities, and supports to address and advance the positive development of children and youth.

One important outcome of camp is for children and adolescents to become better decision-makers. Decision-making is defined as taking personal responsibility for one’s life and taking control of one’s behavior. Decision-making involves thinking for oneself and taking action consistent with that thought (Catalano et al., 2002). Decision-making also is linked to goal-setting and problem-solving. Making good decisions and carrying them out is a life skill essential for development into adulthood.


Research Says
Young people need choice and voice (Witt & Caldwell, 2005).
Youth development researchers such as Gambone and her colleagues (2002) demonstrated that youth need to have opportunities to make age-appropriate decisions for themselves and others. They need to be able to decide what activities to participate in, choose responsible alternatives, and take part in implementing the choices.

As children get older, poor decisions have greater consequences than when they are younger. For example, in adolescence, poor decisions (e.g., school, sex) have more negative consequences than in childhood (Lerner, 1995) and the adolescent is more responsible for those decisions and their consequences than in childhood.

The ability for a youth to take an active role in decisions and circumstances that impact their lives is sometimes called autonomy or self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Preserving choice and initiative is critical.

Adolescents can be characterized as poor decision makers. Yet, little research exists that examines how people learn to make decisions. Decision-making does not follow a single trajectory. It includes both an experiential and analytic cognitive system. Even as children develop the competencies to reason effectively and make normative decisions, they also develop shortcut and biased judgment strategies that can be used inappropriately in some situations.

The process of responsible decision-making generally involves an assessment of goals or purposes, an analysis of the alternatives, a consideration of the information about and consequences for each alternative (including how decisions may affect the self as well as others), a decision about a course of action, and the opportunity to carry out and take responsibility for the decision.

Decision-making may be understood in terms of a cost-verses-benefit approach, where behavior is chosen that maximizes gains and minimizes losses (Gordon, 1996). It involves cognitive development but also cultural and societal factors.

Research about age differences in affective decision-making showed that willingness to engage in a risky behavior because it appears advantageous (and not negative) is highest in preadolescents and adolescents with adults more avoidant because of the negative possibilities (Cauffman et al., 2010).

Similarly, Albert and Steinberg (2011) concluded, based on a review of studies conducted in the past 10 years, that information processing related to making risky decisions by adolescents included analytic (i.e., cold) approaches as well as experiential (i.e., hot) approaches.

Developmental neuroscience suggests patterns in maturation influence the propensity to make risky decisions among adolescents.

Too often youth believe that adults plan for them rather than with them. Therefore, youth do not always get opportunities to practice decision-making and problem-solving. Youth programs like camps can help empower youth to take ownership and responsibility for developing and sustaining programs (Witt & Caldwell, 2005).

Hattie et al. (1997) did a meta-analysis and found that the strongest effect sizes were for self control such as independence, self-efficacy, assertiveness, internal locus of control, and decision-making. Effect sizes increased 25 months later –compelling evidence that structured voluntary activities can have a powerful sustainable effect on development.


Camp Research and Decision-Making
Research is somewhat limited regarding the influence of camps on assisting youth to become responsible decision-makers. The little research that exists has shown mixed results in terms of the role of camps.
Chenery’s (1991) qualitative study of camps across the United States found that cooperation, getting along, achievement, being allowed to make choices, being pushed to be the best one can be, independence and teamwork all related to self-esteem. Children reported how free they felt at camp.

Dworken (2001) interviewed parents and found they thought that camp provided campers with many opportunities for decision-making as a small group as well as making personal choices. "Campers are encouraged to use their initiative instead of the staff taking control of every situation," commented one parent.

Bialeschki and Scanlin (2005) described in the preliminary research done with Youth Development Strategies Inc with over 7600 campers that youth involvement, which focused on campers' perceptions around decision-making, leadership, and belonging showed only 5 percent of all campers in the optimal category and 39 percent in the insufficient group. Thus, camps do not seem to be targeting this area, or alternatively, measurement of this construct has not been adequate.

Free-choice has been shown to facilitate positive developmental outcomes for youth. Research done at a residential girls camp with a free-choice philosophy indicated that the outcomes were congruent and the free-choice program was integral to the process (Schmalz, Kerstetter, & Kleiber, 2011).


Bottom Line
Decision-making is a key developmental process needed for positive youth development. The youth development literature has not addressed this process fully. What constitutes the cognitive as well as experiential aspects of decision-making? Camp research has only limited information available about the roles that camp can play.

This area of decision-making offers great potential for youth development and numerous opportunities for further youth development and camp research.


Resources
- Albert, D., & Steinberg, L. (2011). Judgment and decision making in adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 211-224.
- American Camp Association. (2005). Directions: Youth development outcomes of the camp experience. Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/research
- Benson, P.L., & Saito, R.N. (2006). The scientific foundations of youth development. Minneapolis: Search Institute. Retrieved from:
http://www.ppv.org/ppv/publication/assets/74_sup/ydv_4.pdf
- Bialeschki, M.D., & Scanlin, M. (2005). The camp experience: Being all that you can be. Camping Magazine, 78(5). Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/campmag/0509camp.php
- Catalano, R.F., Berglund, M.L., Ryan, M.A.M., Lonczak, H.S., & Hawkins, J.D. (2002). Prevention & Treatment, 5. Retrieved from:
http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume5/pre0050015a.html
- Cauffman, E., Schulman, E. P., Steinberg, L. Claus, E., Banich, M. T., Graham, S., & Woolard, J. (2010). Age differences in affective decision making as indexed by performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 193-207.
- Chenery, M.F. (1991). I am somebody: The messages and methods of organized camping for youth development. Martinsville, IN: American Camping Association.
- Gambone, M.A., & Arbreton, A.J.A. (1997). Safe havens: The contributions of youth organizations to healthy adolescent development. Philadelphia: Public/Private Ventures.
- Gambone, M.A., Klem, A.M., & Connell, J.P. (2002). Finding out what matters for youth: Testing key links in a community action framework for youth development. Philadelphia: Youth Development Strategies, Inc. and Institute for Research and Reform in Education.
- Gordon, C.P. (1996). Adolescent decision making: A broadly based theory and its application to prevention of early pregnancy. Adolescence, 31, 561-585.
- Hattie, J., Marsh, H.W., Neill, J.T., & Richards, G.E. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference. Review of Educational Research, 67, 43-87.
- Lerner, R. (1995). America’s youth in crisis. Challenges and options for programs and policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
- Schmalz, D. L., Kerstetter, D. L., Kleiber, D. A. (2011). An evaluation of developmental outcomes at a free-choice oriented girls summer camp. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 3(1), 53-69.
- Witt, P.A., & Caldwell, L.L. (2005). Recreation and youth development. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.


Recommended Citation
Henderson, K.A. (2012). Decision-Making and Camps. ACA Briefing Papers Series. Retrieved from:
http://www.acacamps.org/volunteers/care/carebriefings.


 
Vocabulary
Advantageous
ارائه‌ی یک منفعت
Giving an advantage.

Autonomy
استقلال در عمل
Freedom of action.

Biased
جانبدارانه
Favoring one person or side over another.

Compel
متقاعد کردن
Powerfully evoking attention or admiration.

Congruent
متجانس
In agreement or harmony.

Initiative
ابتکار
A fresh approach.

Maturation
بلوغ
The action or process of maturing.

Normative
اصولی - هنجاری - مرتبط شدن یا نشأت گرفتن از یک استاندارد یا هنجار
Relating to or deriving from a standard or norm.

Preserve
پایدار ماندن
Maintain in its original or existing state.

Propensity
گرایش - تمایل
An inclination or tendency.

Self- Determination
خودمختاری - خودتصمیم‌گیری - فرایندی که یک فرد زندگی‌اش را کنترل می‌کند
The process by which a person controls their own life.

Short cut
میان‌بُر
An alternative route that is shorter than the one usually taken.

Trajectory
مسیر - گذرگاه
The path described by a projectile flying or an object moving under the action of given forces.

 
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نظر شما پس از تاييد در سايت قرار داده خواهد شد
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