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یکی پس از دیگری (اوقات فراغت کودکان، نوجوانان و جوانان شماره‌ی 42)
آخرین عکس (اوقات فراغت کودکان، نوجوانان و جوانان شماره‌ی 41)
داستان پدرم (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 40)
اِی‌اِن‌جی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 39)
آسمان آریانه (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 38)
نقشی از جان (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 37)
دوست صمیمی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 36)
سلام شتر! - ارزش دوستی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 35)
سمفونی میمون (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 34)
سپیده‌دم (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 33)
تغییر تخم‌مرغ (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 32)
َوَردست (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 31)
کودکان در باغ‌وحش (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 30)
اهرام مصر (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 29)
روح (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 27)
ارواح شعبده‌باز (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 26)
اونو بگیرید! (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 25)
مادر (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 24)
روش صحیح (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 23)
داستانی کوتاه‌ از یک روباه و یک موش (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 22)
ناممکن برای کبوتر (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 21)
بازی گِری یا پیرمرد بازنشسته‌ی شطرنج‌باز (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 20)
هدف (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 19)
آه پسر - زندگی پسر فقیر مالزیایی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 18)
سردار شهید حاج احمد کاظمی - قسمت دوم (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 17)
سردار شهید حاج احمد کاظمی - قسمت اول (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 16)
شهدای انقلاب اسلامی و دفاع مقدس علی، مهدی و حمید باکری (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 15)
بره‌ای شجاع در جزیره - قسمت اول (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 14)
پروازی بلند (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 13)
اریگامی یا کاغذ و تا (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 12)
دنیا در یک دقیقه! (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 11)
تهدید آرام (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 10)
«ماریزا» الاغ لجوج (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 9)
آخرین گره (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 8)
فقدان روشنایی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 7)
دکتر سعید کاظمی آشتیانی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 6)
اروپا و ایتالیا (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 5)
ساعت زنگ‌دار (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 4)
لامپ! (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 3)
چرا به‌نظر می‌رسد نصایح پدرانه و مادرانه در لحظه‌ی مورد نظر جواب نمی‌دهد؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خا
چگونه ارتباط نزدیک‌مان را با نوجوانان‌مان حفظ کنیم؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 43)
زمانی که بچه‌ها بدرفتاری می‌کنند (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 42)
تکلیف منزل - امروزه در برابر گذشته (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 41)
یافتن مدرسه‌ی مناسب برای تأمین نیازهای فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 40)
نصایحی برای فرزندان و والدین در مورد آزمون‌ها (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 39)
تجربه در برابر موفقیت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 38)
چگونه ارتباط‌های بین‌فردی به موفقیت می‌انجامد؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 37)
آیا از نوجوانان‌مان سؤال بپرسیم که ... (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 36)
اهمیت عذرخواهی از نوجوانان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 35)
آموزش عذرخواهی به نوجوانان با ذکر مثال (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 34)
خودتنظیمی به‌عنوان پیش‌بینی‌کننده‌ی موفقیت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 33)
چگونه والدینی خودآگاه باشیم؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 32)
ارتباط برقرار کردن با نوجوانان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 31)
آموزش خودکنترلی به بچه‌ها (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 30)
اعتماد به فرزندان 8 الی 12 ساله‌ی‌مان برای تصمیم‌گیری صحیح (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌
نکته‌هایی برای ارتقای نوجوانان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 28)
فواید درگیر بودن بچه‌ها با فعالیت‌های مثبت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 27)
تصمیم‌گیری نوجوان در برابر تصمیم‌گیری بزرگسال (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 26)
تصمیم‌گیری مناسب برای نوجوانان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 25)
نوجوانان و تصمیم‌‌گیری مناسب (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 24)
آموزش مسؤولیت‌پذیری به فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 23)
آموزش مستقل بودن به فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 22)
چگونگی ایفای نقش برای تصمیم‌گیری‌های بهتر (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 21)
رقابت سالم (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 20)
سخنی درباره‌ی رقابت (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 19)
کمک به فرزندان 9 الی 12 ساله در جهت رشد مهارت‌های تفکر انتقادی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شم
چگونه یک مربی بزرگ باشیم؟ (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 17)
آموزش بخشندگی به فرزندان‌مان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 16)
توسعه‌ی مهارت‌های تصمیم‌گیری (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 15)
آداب رفتاری خوب برای فرزندان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 14)
رعایت آداب رفتاری احترام محسوب می‌شود (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 13)
نکته‌هایی برای آموزش آداب رفتاری (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 12)
آموزش همدلی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 11)
اعمال ارزش‌های خانوادگی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 10)
ایجاد ارزش‌های خانوادگی (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 9)
اِعمال تدریجی ارزش‌های خوب در فرزندان‌تان (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 7)
شش عادت افراد همدل (سخنرانی کوتاه درباره‌ی خانواده به‌شماره‌ی 6)
پنج پیام پدر و مادر مثبت بودن (اوقات فراغت خانواده شماره‌ی 5)
دو دلیل برای شکست سازمان‌ها و چگونگی اجتناب از آن (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 56)
برای رهبری بزرگ بودن چه باید کرد؟ (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 55)
مدیریت دانش و عملکرد فرایند - دلالت‌های عملی - قسمت دوم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 54)
مدیریت دانش و عملکرد فرایند - دلالت‌های عملی - قسمت اول (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 53)
چطور در کارهایی که به آن‌ها اهمیت می‌دهیم بهتر شویم؟ (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 51)
چگونه درس‌های آموخته شده را در پایان یک پروژه جذب کنیم؟ (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 50)
چارلی چاپلین در عصر جدید (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 49)
مربی‌گری چیست؟ (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 48)
مدیریت دانش سازمانی - شناساندن و حذف نرم‌افزاری کارمندان (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 47)
نمودار مثلثی دانش فرایند و نرم‌افزارهای مدیریت دانش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 46)
طوفان ذهنی؛ روشی صحیح، منصفانه، پسندیده و اخلاقی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 45)
مقدمه‌ای بر یادگیری مؤثر درس‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 44)
سازمان‌های یادگیرنده - اهمیت مدیریت دانش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 43)
مدیریت دانش برای تمام نسل‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 42)
مقدمه‌ای بر استقرار سیستم مدیریت دانش در سازمان‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 41)
سیستم مدیریت دانش - ایجاد تجربه‌ای بهتر برای مشتریان (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 40)
نمونه‌ای از کارکرد نرم‌افزارهای مدیریت دانش - افزایش کارایی در سازمان‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی
مدیریت دانش - افراد، فرایندها و فناوری‌ها (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 38)
ملاقات «باری» و «سامی» (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 37)
سیستم فکر کردن - پنگوئن‌ها و شیرماهی‌ها در یک کوه یخی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 36)
آن‌چه می‌دانیم کشف کنیم! (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 35)
سهم‌گذاری توانمندی، سرمایه و ثروتی به‌نام دانش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 34)
گاری - چهار نوع اعضای یک تیم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 33)
برف و بهمن - مدیریت دانش و خطر (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 32)
بحث گروهی صحیح مطابق با مدل دینامیک گروهی «بروس تاکمن» (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 31)
گم کردن هدف - تعیین اهداف شخصی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 30)
آیا می‌خواهیم بیش‌تر نواور باشیم؟! - خلاقیت در ایجاد صدای رعد و برق (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 29)
فرمانروایان مقدس - فرمانروایی حضرت داوود(علیه‌السلام) - خلاقیت در فتح اورشلیم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شم
فرانکی (اوقات فراغت کودک، نوجوان و جوان شماره‌ی 28)
چگونگی تأثیر تعهد شغلی بر کسب و کار (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 27)
یک گردش خوب - نورمن ویزدم - خلاقیت، احساس مسؤولیت و سماجت در پیگیری وظایف (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌
قهوه و استراتژی - مجموعه‌ای از راهکارها برای دستیابی ‌به مزیت رقابتی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 25)
اعتقاد به خشنودی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 24)
بازسازی روحیه‌ی تعهد در کارمندان (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 23)
مستر بین و خلاقیت در شناسایی سارق (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 22)
درس‌های مدیریتی از مسابقه‌ی لاک‌پشت و خرگوش (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 21)
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازی حضرت یوسف(علیه‌السلام) ارشاد معنوی در سایه‌ی تدابیر مادی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازی حضرت یوسف(علیه‌السلام) - تعامل صادقانه با مردم (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 1
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازی حضرت سلیمان(علیه‌السلام) - صلابت در رهبری (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 18)
سبک مدیریت و فرهنگ‌سازیحضرت سلیمان(ع) - ایفای نقش آرام‌بخشی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 17)
شش عادت افراد همدل (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 16)
فرهنگ‌سازی در مترو - پلکان یا پله‌ی برقی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 15)
بسته‌بندی شکلات (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 14)
لحظه‌ی سرنوشت‌ساز راست‌گویی (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 13)
درست‌کاری چیست؟! (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 11)
از طریق نمودار سازمانی‌تان تأثیرگذاری بیش‌تری داشته باشید! (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 10)
یک طاووس در سرزمین پنگوئن‌ها - نواوری و شهامت (معرفی فیلم مدیریتی شماره‌ی 12)
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Injury and Illness (Health and Wellness No. 7)
کوچک کردن
Injury and Illness (Health and Wellness No. 7)
Health and Wellness
 Injury is a leading cause of the death of children.

Injury and Illness
in Camps


Reference
Originally published in the AmericanCamp Association.


 
Author
Barry A. Garst
Associate Professor at Clemson University
Linda Erceg
Camp Nursing & Camp Risk Management Educator & Consultant.


 
Translated Paper
You can find the translated Persian paper in this address:
http://www.tasnimnoor.com/Default.aspx?tabid=412&EntryID=1773


 
Injurry and Wellness in Camps
Camp experiences enrich children’s lives. Although camp experiences contribute to a variety of positive youth developmental outcomes (Bialeschki , Henderson, & James, 2007), camp experiences also pose a risk for youth because of exposure to injuries and illnesses (Erceg, Garst, Powell, & Yard, 2006). Injury is a leading cause of the death of children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012), and childhood illness has a range of negative health, social, and financial impacts (Peden, McGee, & Krug, 2002). Reducing the incidence of injuries and illness at camp is central to the provision of high-quality camp experiences (Association of Camp Nurses, 2013). Understanding when, where, and how injuries and illness occur in camps creates an opportunity for camp administrators and healthcare providers to improve camp safety by implementing effective practices to better manage risk.

Collecting accurate incidence data is the first step in preventing illness and injury (Association of Camp Nurses, 2013). In fact, the American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) recommends that camps use a health record system that documents camper and staff illnesses and injuries and that allows camp administrators to identify the camp’s illness and injury profile. Many camps look to the American Camp Association’s accreditation program for guidance regarding appropriate camp healthcare standards (2012), and one standard (HW.21) directs camps to maintain a recordkeeping system in which information about injuries and illnesses is permanently recorded. Although some camps have processes for regularly reviewing health record logs, the camp community has lacked effective benchmarks for injury and illness monitoring.


Research Says
 Regulations differ greatly between states and little quantifiable information is available on deaths, injuries, or illness (General Accounting Office, 1989).

 Asnes, Feldman, & Gersony (1974) analyzed 1,412 consecutive physician- camper encounters at a traditional camp during one summer. Upper- respiratory tract infections were the most frequent reason for seeking medical attention, followed by dermatologic, gastrointestinal, and skeletomuscular conditions. The researchers found that the limited availability of past medical information concerning campers, absence of routine laboratory facilities, isolation from specialty consultation, and an informal accessible infirmary were common characteristics of camp healthcare.

 In one of the few longitudinal studies on camp- related injuries and illnesses, Rauckhorst and Aroian (1998) examined Illnesses and injuries at three summer camps over a 13- year period between 1977 and 1990 to understand the relationship between age, developmental level, and gender and campers' use of camp heath facilities. Accidents and injuries, communicable diseases, discomfort- related problems, and allergies were the most frequent reasons for health center visits. Gender was found to have a significant effect on midseason and odd- time visits, visits for accidents/ injuries, and constitutional symptoms.

 Trachtman, Woloski- Wruble, and Kilimnick (1994) studied treatment provided over a 4- week period at an overnight camp for children ages 9 to 16 years. Younger children and girls were more likely to seek medical help. The most common presenting complaints involved physical injuries related to sports activities, followed by a wide range of upper respiratory difficulties, such as sore throat, conjunctivitis, and stuffed nose. Aside from increases in minor sports- related injuries, the study found that the health problems of children attending camp were not significantly different in type or severity from those they experience at home.

 Elliot, Elliott, and Bixby (2003) evaluated medical incidents at a canoe and backpacking camp during one summer. Canoe groups were no more at risk for injury than backpacking groups, and campers reported more incidents that staff regardless of sex or location of injury.

 Papageorgiou, Mavromatis, and Kosta (2006) studied summer camp injuries at camps in Greece and developed a typology of eight injury classifications including (1) cut/ wound to the toe injuries, (2) thermal injuries, (3) fractures,(4) cut/ wound to the knee injuries, (5) sprained shoulders, (6) being struck by a ball, (7) sprained ankle, and (8) bites. Data regarding the causes of injury were not collected.

 Erceg and Brodin (2012) used a three- week convenience sample of logged Health Center entries from three residential camps for their descriptive study that rank ordered the reasons campers and staff sought healthcare. Headache was most frequently mentioned followed by wounds, then general aches/stains, and respiratory problems. Unexpected findings included the need to address sleep issues and evaluate access by minors to their “as needed” (prn) medications. A post-summer audit of individual health documentation was suggested to gain deeper understanding of specific injury and illness events.

 The American Camp Association conducted a five- year benchmarking study of injuries and illnesses in a sample of U.S. day and resident camps from 2006- 2010 (Garst, Erceg, & Walton, in press), which represented the largest national study of camp- related injuries and illnesses. The study produced the following findings:
- Both day and resident camps reported very low rates of camper and staff injuries. Injuries most often involved the lower extremities and most injuries - classified as musculoskeletal - occurred during planned camp activities such as playing a sport/ game. Sprains and strains topped the list of diagnoses most likely to take campers and staff away from camp for four or more hours.
- The likelihood of getting ill at camp was greater than the likelihood of injury at camp. Campers and staff in day camps tended to have lower rates of illness than campers and staff involved in resident camps. In some study years illnesses associated with the respiratory tract were most prevalent and in other study years illnesses associated with the gastro-intestinal tract were most prevalent.
- Many injury and illness events are preventable if camp administrators and healthcare staff are aware of and address specific risk factors. The most common risk factors for camp injuries included: slips, trips, and falls; failure to use protective equipment; and improper supervision. The most common risk factors for illnesses included transmitting communicable illness from person to person and arriving at camp with an illness.


Bottom Line
Healthy communities and quality program providers alike rely on a strong evidence base for decision-making and planning (Erceg, 2011). Studies of injuries and illnesses in camps over the past two decades prove that injury and illness monitoring is a viable and effective strategy for both identifying injury and illness events for campers and staff and also for identifying opportunities for intervention and prevention. Furthermore, the American Camp Association’s Healthy Camp Study (2011) provided national benchmarks for camper and staff injuries and illnesses in day and resident camps, along with specific risk factors that could be targeted to reduce the likelihood of injuries and illnesses. Once camps address adverse events that are largely preventable, more resources can be devoted in response to incidents that are more difficult to control.


Resources
- American Camp Association (2011). Healthy Camp Study Impact Report: Promoting Health and Wellness among Youth and Staff through a Systematic Surveillance Process in Day and Resident Camps. https://www.acacamps.org/sites/default/files/downloads/Healthy-Camp-Study-Impact-Report.pdf; Accessed October 27, 2013.
- American Camp Association. (2012). Accreditation Process Guide. Martinsville, In: American Camp Association.
- Asnes, Russell S. MD.; Feldman, Bernard MD.; Gersony, Welton M. MD.; (1974). The Medical Care of Children at Summer Camps. An Evaluation of 1,412 Infirmary Visits. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 128 (1), pp 64- 66.
- Association of Camp Nurses. (2013). Hallmarks of a healthy camp community. CompassPoint, 23(2), 7- 8.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Policy Statement - Creating Healthy Camp Experiences. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/03/28/peds.2011-0267; Accessed November 10, 2012.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner; Garst, Barry A.; Powell, Gwynn M.; Yard, Ellen, E. (2009). An Injury and Illness Surveillance Program for Children and Staff: Improving the Safety of Youth Settings. Journalof Park and Recreation Administration; Volume 27; Number 4; pp 121- 132.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury; www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/LeadingCauses.html; Accessed November 10, 2012.
- Elliot, Tricia B.; Elliot, Barbara A.; Bixby, Mark R.; (2003). Risk Factors Associated with Camp Accidents. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 14, pp 2- 8.
- Erceg Linda Ebner (2011). Healthy Camp People 2020. CompassPoint, Volume 21; Number 2: pp 3- 7.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner & Brodin, R. J. (2012). Why Campers and Staff Seek Care from Health Center Staff. Compass Point, 22 (3): 13- 16.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner; Garst, Barry A.; Powell, Gwynn M.; Yard, Ellen, E. (2009). An Injury and Illness Surveillance Program for Children and Staff: Improving the Safety of Youth Settings. Journalof Park and Recreation Administration; Volume 27; Number 4; pp 121- 132.
- Garst, Barry A.; Erceg, Linda E. & Walton, Edward; (In Press); (2013). Injury and Illness Benchmarking and Prevention for Children and Staff Attending U. S. Camps: Promising Practices and Policy Implications. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: Volume 4: Issue 2, Article 5. Available at: http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/childrenatrisk/vol4/iss2/5.
- General Accounting Office. (1989). Youth Camps: Nationwide and State Data on Health Lacking. Report to U. S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor (GAO/ HRD -89- 140). www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO/HRD-89-140; Accessed September 1, 2008.
- Papageorgiou, Panagiota; Mavromatis, George & Kosta, George; (2006). Summer Camp Injuries: A Tool for Safety Planning at the Summer Camp. World Leisure. 3, 54- 61.
- Peden, M., McGee, K., & Krug, E. (2002). Injury: A Leading Cause of Global Burden of Disease. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Rauckhorst, Louise & Aroian, Jane F. (1998). Children’s Use of Summer Camp Health Facilities: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 13 (4), 200- 209.
- Trachtman, Howard; Woloski-Wruble Anna C.; Kilimnick, Nichele; Ausabel Jeanne F.; Klein Janis Daniels, Weissman Michelle S.; Selesny Julie; Lebowitz Yael; (1994). Pediatric Practice in a Summer Sleep- Away Camp. Clinical Pediatrics, 33 (11), pp 649- 653.


Recommended Citation
Garst, B.A. & Erceg, L. (2013). Injury and illness in camps. Briefing paper prepared for the American Camp Association. Retrieved: http://www.acacamps.org/volunteers/care/carebriefings.


About Authors
Barry A. Garst
Barry A. Garst, Ph.D. is an associate professor at Clemson University, where he teaches in the bachelors and master's degree Youth Development Leadership programs in the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management.
PREVIOUSLY
- Director of Program Development and Research, American Camp Association (2007-2014)
- Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Youth Development- Virginia Tech (2001-2007)
- Director of Programs- W.E. Skelton 4-H Educational Conference Center (1998-2001)
- Research Assistant- Arizona State University (1996-1998)
- Counselor, Therapeutic Wilderness Treatment Program- Three Springs of North Carolina/Atlantic Behavioral Health Systems (1993-1996)
EDUCATION
- Ph.D., Human/Social Dimensions of Forestry, Virginia Tech
- M.S., Recreation Administration, Arizona State University
- B.S., Psychology, Virginia Tech.
Dr. Garst's research and professional interests focus on positive youth development in out-of-school time (OST) programs and settings. A nationally recognized researcher and scholar in the area of summer camp experiences, his scholarship has also examined how human contact with nature transforms youth and families.


 
Vocabulary
Adverse
آسیب‌زننده
Harmful; unfavourable.

Audit
آزمون یا بررسی روشمند از شرایط یا موقعیت
A methodical examination or review of a condition or situation.

Communicable Disease
بیماری‌ای که می‌تواند از یک فرد به فرد دیگر منتقل شود – بیماری عفونی
A disease that can be communicated from one person to another.

Consecutive
متوالی – پی‌در‌پی
Following continuously.

Constitutional Symptoms
علایم ترکیبی
علایم ترکیبی به گروهی از علایم برمی‌گردد که می‌تواند سیستم‌های بسیار متفاوت بدن را تحت‌تأثیر قرار دهد. به‌عنوان مثال: کاهش وزن، انواع تب، سردرد، تب‌ها با منشأهای ناشناخته،‌ تعریق بیش از حد و غیرطبیعی (Hyperhidrosis)، تعریق معمول، بیماری‌های خونی، خستگی، تنگی نفس و ضعف.
از مثال‌های دیگر از این دست می‌توان به موارد ذیل اشاره کرد: لرز، عرق شبانه و کم اشتهایی.
این علایم معمولاً اختصاص به یک بیماری ندارند و بیماری‌ها و شرایط بسیاری را شامل می‌شوند و برای شناخت بیماری نیازمند ارزشیابی بیش‌تر هستیم.
Constitutional symptoms refers to a group of symptoms that can affect many different systems of the body. Examples include weight loss, fevers, headache, fevers of unknown origin, hyperhidrosis, generalized hyperhidrosis, chronic pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and malaise. Other examples include chills, night sweats, and decreased appetite. Generally, they are very nonspecific, with a vast number of diseases and conditions as potential cause, thereby requiring further evaluation for any diagnosis.

Convenience
تسهیلات
The state of being suitable or opportune.

Dermatology
بیماری‌های پوستی
The branch of medicine concerned with skin disorders.

Encounter
به‌طور غیرمنتظره ملاقات کردن یا مواجه شدن با چیزی
Unexpectedly meet or be faced with.

Extremity
شدت یا جدیت
Severity or seriousness.

Gastrointestinal
گوارشی
Of or relating to the stomach and the intestines.

Incident
حادثه - رویداد
An event or occurrence; an instance of something happening.

Infirmary
مرکز مراقبت از بیماری‌ها یا صدمه‌ها - بیمارستان
A place for the care of those who are ill or injured; a hospital.

Informal
مناسب برای زندگی یا استفاده‌ی روزانه
Appropriate to everyday life or use.

Log
یک مستند مکتوب
A written record of messages sent or received.

Longitudinal
شامل اطلاعات درباره‌ی افراد یا گروه‌ها که در دوره‌ای طولانی‌مدت جمع‌اوری شده است
Involving information about an individual or group gathered over a prolonged period.

Mid- Season
میان‌فصل – اواسط فصل
Of or at the middle of a season.

Minor
کم‌اهمیت، غیرجدی یا کم‌ارزش یا جزوی
خردسال
کم‌اهمیت، غیرجدی یا کم‌ارزش یا جزوی
خردسال
Having little importance, seriousness, or significance.
A person under the age of full legal responsibility.

Odd- Time
زمان‌های غیرمعمول یا غیرمنتظره – زمان‌های عجیب و غریب
Odd
غیرمعمول یا غیرمنتظره – عجیب و غریب
Unusual or unexpected; strange.

Pose
ارائه یا تشکیل دادن یک مشکل، خطر، سؤال و غیره
Present or constitute (a problem, danger, question, etc.).

Prevalent
شایع - رایج
Widespread in a particular area at a particular time.

Prn
نسخه‌ی مورد نیاز
According to need (physicians use PRN in writing prescriptions).

Respiratory
تنفسی
Of, relating to, or affecting respiration or the organs of respiration.

Skeletomuscular
بیماری اسکلتی، ماهیچه‌ای

Sprain
پیچ‌خوردگی
Wrench the ligaments of (an ankle, wrist, or other joint) violently so as to cause pain and swelling but not dislocation.

Strain
در رفتن
A distinct breed, stock, or variety of an animal, plant, or other organism.

Symptom
علامت بیماری
A feature which indicates a condition of disease, in particular one apparent to the patient.

Tract
وسعت
An extended area of land.

Typology
گونه‌شناسی - مطالعه‌ی سیستماتیک طبقه‌بندی انواع که دارای ویژگی‌ها یا صفات مشترک هستند - تایپولوژی - شناخت تیپ افراد
The study or systematic classification of types that have characteristics or traits in common.

Upper respiratory infection
عفونت بخش‌های بالایی دستگاه تنفس
Infection of the upper respiratory tract.

Viable
امکان‌پذیر – قابلیت عمل کردن به‌شکلی موفقیت‌امیز
Capable of working successfully; feasible.
 
1397/10/21 لينک مستقيم

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تایید انصراف
 
Injury and Illness (Health and Wellness No. 7)
کوچک کردن
Injury and Illness (Health and Wellness No. 7)
Health and Wellness
 Injury is a leading cause of the death of children.

Injury and Illness
in Camps


Reference
Originally published in the AmericanCamp Association.


 
Author
Barry A. Garst
Associate Professor at Clemson University
Linda Erceg
Camp Nursing & Camp Risk Management Educator & Consultant.


 
Translated Paper
You can find the translated Persian paper in this address:
http://www.tasnimnoor.com/Default.aspx?tabid=412&EntryID=1773


 
Injurry and Wellness in Camps
Camp experiences enrich children’s lives. Although camp experiences contribute to a variety of positive youth developmental outcomes (Bialeschki , Henderson, & James, 2007), camp experiences also pose a risk for youth because of exposure to injuries and illnesses (Erceg, Garst, Powell, & Yard, 2006). Injury is a leading cause of the death of children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012), and childhood illness has a range of negative health, social, and financial impacts (Peden, McGee, & Krug, 2002). Reducing the incidence of injuries and illness at camp is central to the provision of high-quality camp experiences (Association of Camp Nurses, 2013). Understanding when, where, and how injuries and illness occur in camps creates an opportunity for camp administrators and healthcare providers to improve camp safety by implementing effective practices to better manage risk.

Collecting accurate incidence data is the first step in preventing illness and injury (Association of Camp Nurses, 2013). In fact, the American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) recommends that camps use a health record system that documents camper and staff illnesses and injuries and that allows camp administrators to identify the camp’s illness and injury profile. Many camps look to the American Camp Association’s accreditation program for guidance regarding appropriate camp healthcare standards (2012), and one standard (HW.21) directs camps to maintain a recordkeeping system in which information about injuries and illnesses is permanently recorded. Although some camps have processes for regularly reviewing health record logs, the camp community has lacked effective benchmarks for injury and illness monitoring.


Research Says
 Regulations differ greatly between states and little quantifiable information is available on deaths, injuries, or illness (General Accounting Office, 1989).

 Asnes, Feldman, & Gersony (1974) analyzed 1,412 consecutive physician- camper encounters at a traditional camp during one summer. Upper- respiratory tract infections were the most frequent reason for seeking medical attention, followed by dermatologic, gastrointestinal, and skeletomuscular conditions. The researchers found that the limited availability of past medical information concerning campers, absence of routine laboratory facilities, isolation from specialty consultation, and an informal accessible infirmary were common characteristics of camp healthcare.

 In one of the few longitudinal studies on camp- related injuries and illnesses, Rauckhorst and Aroian (1998) examined Illnesses and injuries at three summer camps over a 13- year period between 1977 and 1990 to understand the relationship between age, developmental level, and gender and campers' use of camp heath facilities. Accidents and injuries, communicable diseases, discomfort- related problems, and allergies were the most frequent reasons for health center visits. Gender was found to have a significant effect on midseason and odd- time visits, visits for accidents/ injuries, and constitutional symptoms.

 Trachtman, Woloski- Wruble, and Kilimnick (1994) studied treatment provided over a 4- week period at an overnight camp for children ages 9 to 16 years. Younger children and girls were more likely to seek medical help. The most common presenting complaints involved physical injuries related to sports activities, followed by a wide range of upper respiratory difficulties, such as sore throat, conjunctivitis, and stuffed nose. Aside from increases in minor sports- related injuries, the study found that the health problems of children attending camp were not significantly different in type or severity from those they experience at home.

 Elliot, Elliott, and Bixby (2003) evaluated medical incidents at a canoe and backpacking camp during one summer. Canoe groups were no more at risk for injury than backpacking groups, and campers reported more incidents that staff regardless of sex or location of injury.

 Papageorgiou, Mavromatis, and Kosta (2006) studied summer camp injuries at camps in Greece and developed a typology of eight injury classifications including (1) cut/ wound to the toe injuries, (2) thermal injuries, (3) fractures,(4) cut/ wound to the knee injuries, (5) sprained shoulders, (6) being struck by a ball, (7) sprained ankle, and (8) bites. Data regarding the causes of injury were not collected.

 Erceg and Brodin (2012) used a three- week convenience sample of logged Health Center entries from three residential camps for their descriptive study that rank ordered the reasons campers and staff sought healthcare. Headache was most frequently mentioned followed by wounds, then general aches/stains, and respiratory problems. Unexpected findings included the need to address sleep issues and evaluate access by minors to their “as needed” (prn) medications. A post-summer audit of individual health documentation was suggested to gain deeper understanding of specific injury and illness events.

 The American Camp Association conducted a five- year benchmarking study of injuries and illnesses in a sample of U.S. day and resident camps from 2006- 2010 (Garst, Erceg, & Walton, in press), which represented the largest national study of camp- related injuries and illnesses. The study produced the following findings:
- Both day and resident camps reported very low rates of camper and staff injuries. Injuries most often involved the lower extremities and most injuries - classified as musculoskeletal - occurred during planned camp activities such as playing a sport/ game. Sprains and strains topped the list of diagnoses most likely to take campers and staff away from camp for four or more hours.
- The likelihood of getting ill at camp was greater than the likelihood of injury at camp. Campers and staff in day camps tended to have lower rates of illness than campers and staff involved in resident camps. In some study years illnesses associated with the respiratory tract were most prevalent and in other study years illnesses associated with the gastro-intestinal tract were most prevalent.
- Many injury and illness events are preventable if camp administrators and healthcare staff are aware of and address specific risk factors. The most common risk factors for camp injuries included: slips, trips, and falls; failure to use protective equipment; and improper supervision. The most common risk factors for illnesses included transmitting communicable illness from person to person and arriving at camp with an illness.


Bottom Line
Healthy communities and quality program providers alike rely on a strong evidence base for decision-making and planning (Erceg, 2011). Studies of injuries and illnesses in camps over the past two decades prove that injury and illness monitoring is a viable and effective strategy for both identifying injury and illness events for campers and staff and also for identifying opportunities for intervention and prevention. Furthermore, the American Camp Association’s Healthy Camp Study (2011) provided national benchmarks for camper and staff injuries and illnesses in day and resident camps, along with specific risk factors that could be targeted to reduce the likelihood of injuries and illnesses. Once camps address adverse events that are largely preventable, more resources can be devoted in response to incidents that are more difficult to control.


Resources
- American Camp Association (2011). Healthy Camp Study Impact Report: Promoting Health and Wellness among Youth and Staff through a Systematic Surveillance Process in Day and Resident Camps. https://www.acacamps.org/sites/default/files/downloads/Healthy-Camp-Study-Impact-Report.pdf; Accessed October 27, 2013.
- American Camp Association. (2012). Accreditation Process Guide. Martinsville, In: American Camp Association.
- Asnes, Russell S. MD.; Feldman, Bernard MD.; Gersony, Welton M. MD.; (1974). The Medical Care of Children at Summer Camps. An Evaluation of 1,412 Infirmary Visits. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 128 (1), pp 64- 66.
- Association of Camp Nurses. (2013). Hallmarks of a healthy camp community. CompassPoint, 23(2), 7- 8.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Policy Statement - Creating Healthy Camp Experiences. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/03/28/peds.2011-0267; Accessed November 10, 2012.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner; Garst, Barry A.; Powell, Gwynn M.; Yard, Ellen, E. (2009). An Injury and Illness Surveillance Program for Children and Staff: Improving the Safety of Youth Settings. Journalof Park and Recreation Administration; Volume 27; Number 4; pp 121- 132.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury; www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/LeadingCauses.html; Accessed November 10, 2012.
- Elliot, Tricia B.; Elliot, Barbara A.; Bixby, Mark R.; (2003). Risk Factors Associated with Camp Accidents. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 14, pp 2- 8.
- Erceg Linda Ebner (2011). Healthy Camp People 2020. CompassPoint, Volume 21; Number 2: pp 3- 7.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner & Brodin, R. J. (2012). Why Campers and Staff Seek Care from Health Center Staff. Compass Point, 22 (3): 13- 16.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner; Garst, Barry A.; Powell, Gwynn M.; Yard, Ellen, E. (2009). An Injury and Illness Surveillance Program for Children and Staff: Improving the Safety of Youth Settings. Journalof Park and Recreation Administration; Volume 27; Number 4; pp 121- 132.
- Garst, Barry A.; Erceg, Linda E. & Walton, Edward; (In Press); (2013). Injury and Illness Benchmarking and Prevention for Children and Staff Attending U. S. Camps: Promising Practices and Policy Implications. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: Volume 4: Issue 2, Article 5. Available at: http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/childrenatrisk/vol4/iss2/5.
- General Accounting Office. (1989). Youth Camps: Nationwide and State Data on Health Lacking. Report to U. S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor (GAO/ HRD -89- 140). www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO/HRD-89-140; Accessed September 1, 2008.
- Papageorgiou, Panagiota; Mavromatis, George & Kosta, George; (2006). Summer Camp Injuries: A Tool for Safety Planning at the Summer Camp. World Leisure. 3, 54- 61.
- Peden, M., McGee, K., & Krug, E. (2002). Injury: A Leading Cause of Global Burden of Disease. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Rauckhorst, Louise & Aroian, Jane F. (1998). Children’s Use of Summer Camp Health Facilities: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 13 (4), 200- 209.
- Trachtman, Howard; Woloski-Wruble Anna C.; Kilimnick, Nichele; Ausabel Jeanne F.; Klein Janis Daniels, Weissman Michelle S.; Selesny Julie; Lebowitz Yael; (1994). Pediatric Practice in a Summer Sleep- Away Camp. Clinical Pediatrics, 33 (11), pp 649- 653.


Recommended Citation
Garst, B.A. & Erceg, L. (2013). Injury and illness in camps. Briefing paper prepared for the American Camp Association. Retrieved: http://www.acacamps.org/volunteers/care/carebriefings.


About Authors
Barry A. Garst
Barry A. Garst, Ph.D. is an associate professor at Clemson University, where he teaches in the bachelors and master's degree Youth Development Leadership programs in the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management.
PREVIOUSLY
- Director of Program Development and Research, American Camp Association (2007-2014)
- Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Youth Development- Virginia Tech (2001-2007)
- Director of Programs- W.E. Skelton 4-H Educational Conference Center (1998-2001)
- Research Assistant- Arizona State University (1996-1998)
- Counselor, Therapeutic Wilderness Treatment Program- Three Springs of North Carolina/Atlantic Behavioral Health Systems (1993-1996)
EDUCATION
- Ph.D., Human/Social Dimensions of Forestry, Virginia Tech
- M.S., Recreation Administration, Arizona State University
- B.S., Psychology, Virginia Tech.
Dr. Garst's research and professional interests focus on positive youth development in out-of-school time (OST) programs and settings. A nationally recognized researcher and scholar in the area of summer camp experiences, his scholarship has also examined how human contact with nature transforms youth and families.


 
Vocabulary
Adverse
آسیب‌زننده
Harmful; unfavourable.

Audit
آزمون یا بررسی روشمند از شرایط یا موقعیت
A methodical examination or review of a condition or situation.

Communicable Disease
بیماری‌ای که می‌تواند از یک فرد به فرد دیگر منتقل شود – بیماری عفونی
A disease that can be communicated from one person to another.

Consecutive
متوالی – پی‌در‌پی
Following continuously.

Constitutional Symptoms
علایم ترکیبی
علایم ترکیبی به گروهی از علایم برمی‌گردد که می‌تواند سیستم‌های بسیار متفاوت بدن را تحت‌تأثیر قرار دهد. به‌عنوان مثال: کاهش وزن، انواع تب، سردرد، تب‌ها با منشأهای ناشناخته،‌ تعریق بیش از حد و غیرطبیعی (Hyperhidrosis)، تعریق معمول، بیماری‌های خونی، خستگی، تنگی نفس و ضعف.
از مثال‌های دیگر از این دست می‌توان به موارد ذیل اشاره کرد: لرز، عرق شبانه و کم اشتهایی.
این علایم معمولاً اختصاص به یک بیماری ندارند و بیماری‌ها و شرایط بسیاری را شامل می‌شوند و برای شناخت بیماری نیازمند ارزشیابی بیش‌تر هستیم.
Constitutional symptoms refers to a group of symptoms that can affect many different systems of the body. Examples include weight loss, fevers, headache, fevers of unknown origin, hyperhidrosis, generalized hyperhidrosis, chronic pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and malaise. Other examples include chills, night sweats, and decreased appetite. Generally, they are very nonspecific, with a vast number of diseases and conditions as potential cause, thereby requiring further evaluation for any diagnosis.

Convenience
تسهیلات
The state of being suitable or opportune.

Dermatology
بیماری‌های پوستی
The branch of medicine concerned with skin disorders.

Encounter
به‌طور غیرمنتظره ملاقات کردن یا مواجه شدن با چیزی
Unexpectedly meet or be faced with.

Extremity
شدت یا جدیت
Severity or seriousness.

Gastrointestinal
گوارشی
Of or relating to the stomach and the intestines.

Incident
حادثه - رویداد
An event or occurrence; an instance of something happening.

Infirmary
مرکز مراقبت از بیماری‌ها یا صدمه‌ها - بیمارستان
A place for the care of those who are ill or injured; a hospital.

Informal
مناسب برای زندگی یا استفاده‌ی روزانه
Appropriate to everyday life or use.

Log
یک مستند مکتوب
A written record of messages sent or received.

Longitudinal
شامل اطلاعات درباره‌ی افراد یا گروه‌ها که در دوره‌ای طولانی‌مدت جمع‌اوری شده است
Involving information about an individual or group gathered over a prolonged period.

Mid- Season
میان‌فصل – اواسط فصل
Of or at the middle of a season.

Minor
کم‌اهمیت، غیرجدی یا کم‌ارزش یا جزوی
خردسال
کم‌اهمیت، غیرجدی یا کم‌ارزش یا جزوی
خردسال
Having little importance, seriousness, or significance.
A person under the age of full legal responsibility.

Odd- Time
زمان‌های غیرمعمول یا غیرمنتظره – زمان‌های عجیب و غریب
Odd
غیرمعمول یا غیرمنتظره – عجیب و غریب
Unusual or unexpected; strange.

Pose
ارائه یا تشکیل دادن یک مشکل، خطر، سؤال و غیره
Present or constitute (a problem, danger, question, etc.).

Prevalent
شایع - رایج
Widespread in a particular area at a particular time.

Prn
نسخه‌ی مورد نیاز
According to need (physicians use PRN in writing prescriptions).

Respiratory
تنفسی
Of, relating to, or affecting respiration or the organs of respiration.

Skeletomuscular
بیماری اسکلتی، ماهیچه‌ای

Sprain
پیچ‌خوردگی
Wrench the ligaments of (an ankle, wrist, or other joint) violently so as to cause pain and swelling but not dislocation.

Strain
در رفتن
A distinct breed, stock, or variety of an animal, plant, or other organism.

Symptom
علامت بیماری
A feature which indicates a condition of disease, in particular one apparent to the patient.

Tract
وسعت
An extended area of land.

Typology
گونه‌شناسی - مطالعه‌ی سیستماتیک طبقه‌بندی انواع که دارای ویژگی‌ها یا صفات مشترک هستند - تایپولوژی - شناخت تیپ افراد
The study or systematic classification of types that have characteristics or traits in common.

Upper respiratory infection
عفونت بخش‌های بالایی دستگاه تنفس
Infection of the upper respiratory tract.

Viable
امکان‌پذیر – قابلیت عمل کردن به‌شکلی موفقیت‌امیز
Capable of working successfully; feasible.
 
1397/10/21 لينک مستقيم

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Injury and Illness (Health and Wellness No. 7)
Injury and Illness (Health and Wellness No. 7)
Health and Wellness
 Injury is a leading cause of the death of children.

Injury and Illness
in Camps


Reference
Originally published in the AmericanCamp Association.


 
Author
Barry A. Garst
Associate Professor at Clemson University
Linda Erceg
Camp Nursing & Camp Risk Management Educator & Consultant.


 
Translated Paper
You can find the translated Persian paper in this address:
http://www.tasnimnoor.com/Default.aspx?tabid=412&EntryID=1773


 
Injurry and Wellness in Camps
Camp experiences enrich children’s lives. Although camp experiences contribute to a variety of positive youth developmental outcomes (Bialeschki , Henderson, & James, 2007), camp experiences also pose a risk for youth because of exposure to injuries and illnesses (Erceg, Garst, Powell, & Yard, 2006). Injury is a leading cause of the death of children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012), and childhood illness has a range of negative health, social, and financial impacts (Peden, McGee, & Krug, 2002). Reducing the incidence of injuries and illness at camp is central to the provision of high-quality camp experiences (Association of Camp Nurses, 2013). Understanding when, where, and how injuries and illness occur in camps creates an opportunity for camp administrators and healthcare providers to improve camp safety by implementing effective practices to better manage risk.

Collecting accurate incidence data is the first step in preventing illness and injury (Association of Camp Nurses, 2013). In fact, the American Academy of Pediatrics (2012) recommends that camps use a health record system that documents camper and staff illnesses and injuries and that allows camp administrators to identify the camp’s illness and injury profile. Many camps look to the American Camp Association’s accreditation program for guidance regarding appropriate camp healthcare standards (2012), and one standard (HW.21) directs camps to maintain a recordkeeping system in which information about injuries and illnesses is permanently recorded. Although some camps have processes for regularly reviewing health record logs, the camp community has lacked effective benchmarks for injury and illness monitoring.


Research Says
 Regulations differ greatly between states and little quantifiable information is available on deaths, injuries, or illness (General Accounting Office, 1989).

 Asnes, Feldman, & Gersony (1974) analyzed 1,412 consecutive physician- camper encounters at a traditional camp during one summer. Upper- respiratory tract infections were the most frequent reason for seeking medical attention, followed by dermatologic, gastrointestinal, and skeletomuscular conditions. The researchers found that the limited availability of past medical information concerning campers, absence of routine laboratory facilities, isolation from specialty consultation, and an informal accessible infirmary were common characteristics of camp healthcare.

 In one of the few longitudinal studies on camp- related injuries and illnesses, Rauckhorst and Aroian (1998) examined Illnesses and injuries at three summer camps over a 13- year period between 1977 and 1990 to understand the relationship between age, developmental level, and gender and campers' use of camp heath facilities. Accidents and injuries, communicable diseases, discomfort- related problems, and allergies were the most frequent reasons for health center visits. Gender was found to have a significant effect on midseason and odd- time visits, visits for accidents/ injuries, and constitutional symptoms.

 Trachtman, Woloski- Wruble, and Kilimnick (1994) studied treatment provided over a 4- week period at an overnight camp for children ages 9 to 16 years. Younger children and girls were more likely to seek medical help. The most common presenting complaints involved physical injuries related to sports activities, followed by a wide range of upper respiratory difficulties, such as sore throat, conjunctivitis, and stuffed nose. Aside from increases in minor sports- related injuries, the study found that the health problems of children attending camp were not significantly different in type or severity from those they experience at home.

 Elliot, Elliott, and Bixby (2003) evaluated medical incidents at a canoe and backpacking camp during one summer. Canoe groups were no more at risk for injury than backpacking groups, and campers reported more incidents that staff regardless of sex or location of injury.

 Papageorgiou, Mavromatis, and Kosta (2006) studied summer camp injuries at camps in Greece and developed a typology of eight injury classifications including (1) cut/ wound to the toe injuries, (2) thermal injuries, (3) fractures,(4) cut/ wound to the knee injuries, (5) sprained shoulders, (6) being struck by a ball, (7) sprained ankle, and (8) bites. Data regarding the causes of injury were not collected.

 Erceg and Brodin (2012) used a three- week convenience sample of logged Health Center entries from three residential camps for their descriptive study that rank ordered the reasons campers and staff sought healthcare. Headache was most frequently mentioned followed by wounds, then general aches/stains, and respiratory problems. Unexpected findings included the need to address sleep issues and evaluate access by minors to their “as needed” (prn) medications. A post-summer audit of individual health documentation was suggested to gain deeper understanding of specific injury and illness events.

 The American Camp Association conducted a five- year benchmarking study of injuries and illnesses in a sample of U.S. day and resident camps from 2006- 2010 (Garst, Erceg, & Walton, in press), which represented the largest national study of camp- related injuries and illnesses. The study produced the following findings:
- Both day and resident camps reported very low rates of camper and staff injuries. Injuries most often involved the lower extremities and most injuries - classified as musculoskeletal - occurred during planned camp activities such as playing a sport/ game. Sprains and strains topped the list of diagnoses most likely to take campers and staff away from camp for four or more hours.
- The likelihood of getting ill at camp was greater than the likelihood of injury at camp. Campers and staff in day camps tended to have lower rates of illness than campers and staff involved in resident camps. In some study years illnesses associated with the respiratory tract were most prevalent and in other study years illnesses associated with the gastro-intestinal tract were most prevalent.
- Many injury and illness events are preventable if camp administrators and healthcare staff are aware of and address specific risk factors. The most common risk factors for camp injuries included: slips, trips, and falls; failure to use protective equipment; and improper supervision. The most common risk factors for illnesses included transmitting communicable illness from person to person and arriving at camp with an illness.


Bottom Line
Healthy communities and quality program providers alike rely on a strong evidence base for decision-making and planning (Erceg, 2011). Studies of injuries and illnesses in camps over the past two decades prove that injury and illness monitoring is a viable and effective strategy for both identifying injury and illness events for campers and staff and also for identifying opportunities for intervention and prevention. Furthermore, the American Camp Association’s Healthy Camp Study (2011) provided national benchmarks for camper and staff injuries and illnesses in day and resident camps, along with specific risk factors that could be targeted to reduce the likelihood of injuries and illnesses. Once camps address adverse events that are largely preventable, more resources can be devoted in response to incidents that are more difficult to control.


Resources
- American Camp Association (2011). Healthy Camp Study Impact Report: Promoting Health and Wellness among Youth and Staff through a Systematic Surveillance Process in Day and Resident Camps. https://www.acacamps.org/sites/default/files/downloads/Healthy-Camp-Study-Impact-Report.pdf; Accessed October 27, 2013.
- American Camp Association. (2012). Accreditation Process Guide. Martinsville, In: American Camp Association.
- Asnes, Russell S. MD.; Feldman, Bernard MD.; Gersony, Welton M. MD.; (1974). The Medical Care of Children at Summer Camps. An Evaluation of 1,412 Infirmary Visits. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 128 (1), pp 64- 66.
- Association of Camp Nurses. (2013). Hallmarks of a healthy camp community. CompassPoint, 23(2), 7- 8.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). Policy Statement - Creating Healthy Camp Experiences. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/03/28/peds.2011-0267; Accessed November 10, 2012.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner; Garst, Barry A.; Powell, Gwynn M.; Yard, Ellen, E. (2009). An Injury and Illness Surveillance Program for Children and Staff: Improving the Safety of Youth Settings. Journalof Park and Recreation Administration; Volume 27; Number 4; pp 121- 132.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury; www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/LeadingCauses.html; Accessed November 10, 2012.
- Elliot, Tricia B.; Elliot, Barbara A.; Bixby, Mark R.; (2003). Risk Factors Associated with Camp Accidents. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, 14, pp 2- 8.
- Erceg Linda Ebner (2011). Healthy Camp People 2020. CompassPoint, Volume 21; Number 2: pp 3- 7.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner & Brodin, R. J. (2012). Why Campers and Staff Seek Care from Health Center Staff. Compass Point, 22 (3): 13- 16.
- Erceg, Linda Ebner; Garst, Barry A.; Powell, Gwynn M.; Yard, Ellen, E. (2009). An Injury and Illness Surveillance Program for Children and Staff: Improving the Safety of Youth Settings. Journalof Park and Recreation Administration; Volume 27; Number 4; pp 121- 132.
- Garst, Barry A.; Erceg, Linda E. & Walton, Edward; (In Press); (2013). Injury and Illness Benchmarking and Prevention for Children and Staff Attending U. S. Camps: Promising Practices and Policy Implications. Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: Volume 4: Issue 2, Article 5. Available at: http://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/childrenatrisk/vol4/iss2/5.
- General Accounting Office. (1989). Youth Camps: Nationwide and State Data on Health Lacking. Report to U. S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor (GAO/ HRD -89- 140). www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO/HRD-89-140; Accessed September 1, 2008.
- Papageorgiou, Panagiota; Mavromatis, George & Kosta, George; (2006). Summer Camp Injuries: A Tool for Safety Planning at the Summer Camp. World Leisure. 3, 54- 61.
- Peden, M., McGee, K., & Krug, E. (2002). Injury: A Leading Cause of Global Burden of Disease. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Rauckhorst, Louise & Aroian, Jane F. (1998). Children’s Use of Summer Camp Health Facilities: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 13 (4), 200- 209.
- Trachtman, Howard; Woloski-Wruble Anna C.; Kilimnick, Nichele; Ausabel Jeanne F.; Klein Janis Daniels, Weissman Michelle S.; Selesny Julie; Lebowitz Yael; (1994). Pediatric Practice in a Summer Sleep- Away Camp. Clinical Pediatrics, 33 (11), pp 649- 653.


Recommended Citation
Garst, B.A. & Erceg, L. (2013). Injury and illness in camps. Briefing paper prepared for the American Camp Association. Retrieved: http://www.acacamps.org/volunteers/care/carebriefings.


About Authors
Barry A. Garst
Barry A. Garst, Ph.D. is an associate professor at Clemson University, where he teaches in the bachelors and master's degree Youth Development Leadership programs in the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management.
PREVIOUSLY
- Director of Program Development and Research, American Camp Association (2007-2014)
- Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Youth Development- Virginia Tech (2001-2007)
- Director of Programs- W.E. Skelton 4-H Educational Conference Center (1998-2001)
- Research Assistant- Arizona State University (1996-1998)
- Counselor, Therapeutic Wilderness Treatment Program- Three Springs of North Carolina/Atlantic Behavioral Health Systems (1993-1996)
EDUCATION
- Ph.D., Human/Social Dimensions of Forestry, Virginia Tech
- M.S., Recreation Administration, Arizona State University
- B.S., Psychology, Virginia Tech.
Dr. Garst's research and professional interests focus on positive youth development in out-of-school time (OST) programs and settings. A nationally recognized researcher and scholar in the area of summer camp experiences, his scholarship has also examined how human contact with nature transforms youth and families.


 
Vocabulary
Adverse
آسیب‌زننده
Harmful; unfavourable.

Audit
آزمون یا بررسی روشمند از شرایط یا موقعیت
A methodical examination or review of a condition or situation.

Communicable Disease
بیماری‌ای که می‌تواند از یک فرد به فرد دیگر منتقل شود – بیماری عفونی
A disease that can be communicated from one person to another.

Consecutive
متوالی – پی‌در‌پی
Following continuously.

Constitutional Symptoms
علایم ترکیبی
علایم ترکیبی به گروهی از علایم برمی‌گردد که می‌تواند سیستم‌های بسیار متفاوت بدن را تحت‌تأثیر قرار دهد. به‌عنوان مثال: کاهش وزن، انواع تب، سردرد، تب‌ها با منشأهای ناشناخته،‌ تعریق بیش از حد و غیرطبیعی (Hyperhidrosis)، تعریق معمول، بیماری‌های خونی، خستگی، تنگی نفس و ضعف.
از مثال‌های دیگر از این دست می‌توان به موارد ذیل اشاره کرد: لرز، عرق شبانه و کم اشتهایی.
این علایم معمولاً اختصاص به یک بیماری ندارند و بیماری‌ها و شرایط بسیاری را شامل می‌شوند و برای شناخت بیماری نیازمند ارزشیابی بیش‌تر هستیم.
Constitutional symptoms refers to a group of symptoms that can affect many different systems of the body. Examples include weight loss, fevers, headache, fevers of unknown origin, hyperhidrosis, generalized hyperhidrosis, chronic pain, fatigue, dyspnea, and malaise. Other examples include chills, night sweats, and decreased appetite. Generally, they are very nonspecific, with a vast number of diseases and conditions as potential cause, thereby requiring further evaluation for any diagnosis.

Convenience
تسهیلات
The state of being suitable or opportune.

Dermatology
بیماری‌های پوستی
The branch of medicine concerned with skin disorders.

Encounter
به‌طور غیرمنتظره ملاقات کردن یا مواجه شدن با چیزی
Unexpectedly meet or be faced with.

Extremity
شدت یا جدیت
Severity or seriousness.

Gastrointestinal
گوارشی
Of or relating to the stomach and the intestines.

Incident
حادثه - رویداد
An event or occurrence; an instance of something happening.

Infirmary
مرکز مراقبت از بیماری‌ها یا صدمه‌ها - بیمارستان
A place for the care of those who are ill or injured; a hospital.

Informal
مناسب برای زندگی یا استفاده‌ی روزانه
Appropriate to everyday life or use.

Log
یک مستند مکتوب
A written record of messages sent or received.

Longitudinal
شامل اطلاعات درباره‌ی افراد یا گروه‌ها که در دوره‌ای طولانی‌مدت جمع‌اوری شده است
Involving information about an individual or group gathered over a prolonged period.

Mid- Season
میان‌فصل – اواسط فصل
Of or at the middle of a season.

Minor
کم‌اهمیت، غیرجدی یا کم‌ارزش یا جزوی
خردسال
کم‌اهمیت، غیرجدی یا کم‌ارزش یا جزوی
خردسال
Having little importance, seriousness, or significance.
A person under the age of full legal responsibility.

Odd- Time
زمان‌های غیرمعمول یا غیرمنتظره – زمان‌های عجیب و غریب
Odd
غیرمعمول یا غیرمنتظره – عجیب و غریب
Unusual or unexpected; strange.

Pose
ارائه یا تشکیل دادن یک مشکل، خطر، سؤال و غیره
Present or constitute (a problem, danger, question, etc.).

Prevalent
شایع - رایج
Widespread in a particular area at a particular time.

Prn
نسخه‌ی مورد نیاز
According to need (physicians use PRN in writing prescriptions).

Respiratory
تنفسی
Of, relating to, or affecting respiration or the organs of respiration.

Skeletomuscular
بیماری اسکلتی، ماهیچه‌ای

Sprain
پیچ‌خوردگی
Wrench the ligaments of (an ankle, wrist, or other joint) violently so as to cause pain and swelling but not dislocation.

Strain
در رفتن
A distinct breed, stock, or variety of an animal, plant, or other organism.

Symptom
علامت بیماری
A feature which indicates a condition of disease, in particular one apparent to the patient.

Tract
وسعت
An extended area of land.

Typology
گونه‌شناسی - مطالعه‌ی سیستماتیک طبقه‌بندی انواع که دارای ویژگی‌ها یا صفات مشترک هستند - تایپولوژی - شناخت تیپ افراد
The study or systematic classification of types that have characteristics or traits in common.

Upper respiratory infection
عفونت بخش‌های بالایی دستگاه تنفس
Infection of the upper respiratory tract.

Viable
امکان‌پذیر – قابلیت عمل کردن به‌شکلی موفقیت‌امیز
Capable of working successfully; feasible.
 
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